people hired
thanks to the induced employment
generated by Hera in 2017
million euro
Investments in innovation and
digitalization. 13 projects in smart city,
circular economy and 4.0 utilities
of reused soil
in projects implemented in 2016
and 2017

Economic development and social inclusion

Scenario and policies

Why it is important

Italy has a lower rate of graduates than the EU average and a higher youth unemployment rate and ranks low for public expenditure on education. There is also misalignment between workers’ training and the job they carry out. This leads to an increase in poverty and a gap between social classes. The priorities are: strengthening the education system, promoting access to education and improving quality through the assessment of results. It is also important to implement refresher courses for best use of the current workforce, promote flexibility at work, reduce insecure contracts and provide more support to families.


children and teenagers across the globe that were not able to access education in 2015


jobs created in Italy with the Jobs Act and social security reforms in 2015


the percentage of graduates in Italy between 30 and 34 years of age, compared to a European average of 39%


the percentage of Italians who are unemployed and excluded from education and training programmes


the female employment rate in Italy compared to a European average of 65%


percentage of young females in Italy who would like to be more encouraged into pursuing a STEM profession

Italy lagging behind on employment

The Europe 2020 strategy has set a number of goals to ensure smart growth, based on knowledge and innovation, and inclusive growth, based on high employment rates and social cohesion. The Entrepreneurship 2020 Action Plan for SMEs identifies the dissemination of entrepreneurial skills and training as an area for immediate intervention for the creation of new jobs. In Italy, the National Industry 4.0 Plan promotes the spreading of Italian industrial culture, both through digital education and the joint school-work programme.

School dropout rate: Italy in line with the goals, but still far from other European countries
  2016 2020
Europe +10.7% <10%
Iyaly 13.85 <16%


Graduates: goal achieved, but Italy far from European average and far from employment rate targets
2016 2020
Europe +39.1% 40%
Iyaly 26.2% 26-27%


Joint school-work programme and training: figures in Italy
Joint school-work targets 400 Hours in technical and professional institutes included in the educational plan for the first three-year period (per capita)
200 Hours in secondary schools included in the educational plan for the first three-year period (per capita)
Targets regarding training on Industry 4.0 topics 100% Students enrolled in higher technical education schools trained on Industry 4.0 topics
Iyaly 61.6% 67-69%


Italia, far from employment rate targets
2016 2020
Europe 71.1% 75%
Iyaly 61.6% 67-69%